Nothing is known about St. Sebastian's youth other than the fact he may have come from southern France and he was educated in Milan. He joined the Roman Army in 283 AD, ostensibly to be of service to other
Christians who were being persecuted by the Romans. St. Sebastian distinguished himself and for his
excellent service, he was promoted to serve in the Praetorian Guard to protect Emperor Diocletian.
While serving as a Praetorian Guard, Marcus and Marcellian, twin brothers, were imprisoned for refusing to
make public sacrifices to the Roman gods. The brothers were deacons of the Christian Church. During their
imprisonment, their parents visited them to implore them to renounce Christianity. However, St. Sebastian
convinced both parents to convert to Christianity. St. Sebastian also converted several other prominent
individuals, including the local prefect.
This led to his discovery and he was reported as a Christian to Emperor Diocletian in 286. The Emperor,
who was already infamous for ordering the deaths of hundreds of Christians, scolded Sebastian and ordered
him to be killed by having him tied to a stake on a training field and used as target practice.
Archers riddled his body with arrows, his body was described as, "full of arrows as an urchin." Believed to be
dead, the archers left his body for retrieval and burial. He was recovered by Irene of Rome, whose Christian
husband was a servant to Diocletian and also martyred. Irene discovered that Sebastian was still living and she
hid him and nursed him back to health.
Once well, Sebastian went in search of Diocletian to surprise him. He managed to catch Diocletian by a
stairwell and proceeded to criticize him loudly and publically for his persecution of the Christians. Diocletian,
surprised that Sebastian was still alive, was immediately taken aback, but recovered his composure. This time,
he would not permit Sebastian to escape with his life. He ordered his former guard to be beaten to death with
clubs, then thrown into the sewers.
His body was recovered by a Christian woman, named Lucina, and she secretly buried him in the catacombs
Nearly 80 years after his death, around 367, his remains were moved to a basilica in Rome, built by Pope
Damasus I. His body, or at least some relics from his body were reportedly removed and shared with a
community of monks in France. His cranium was sent to a German monastery where it was placed in a
special silver case in 934. The relic remains in its case today in a special reliquary in Ebersberg.
St. Sebastian was commonly invoked as a protector against the plague. According to historical records, he
defended the city of Rome against the plague in 680. His association with the plague could be because he
survived being shot full of arrows and in pagan belief, pestilence was delivered by arrows shot by the gods
above. Even Christian Romans would appreciate this symbolism. That symbolism is even captured in artwork
as late as the Renaissance, where artists painted plague victims with black arrows in their body.
In artwork, St. Sebastian is depicted with arrows shot into his body, often tied to a post or a tree. His second
execution is virtually never depicted.
Prayer to St. Sebastian
Dear Commander at the Roman Emperor’s Court, you chose to be also a soldier of Christ and dared to spread faith in the King of Kings – for which you were condemned to die. Your body, however, proved athletically strong and the executing arrows extremely weak. So another means to kill you was chosen and you gave your life to the Lord. May athletes be always as strong in their faith as their Patron Saint so clearly has been. Amen