Luke, the writer of the Gospel and the Acts of the Apostles, has been identified with St. Paul's "Luke, the
beloved physician" (Colossians 4:14). We know few other facts about Luke's life from Scripture and from
early Church historians.
It is believed that Luke was born a Greek and a Gentile. In Colossians 10-14 speaks of those friends who are
with him. He first mentions all those "of the circumcision" -- in other words, Jews -- and he does not include
Luke in this group. Luke's gospel shows special sensitivity to evangelizing Gentiles. It is only in his gospel
that we hear the parable of the Good Samaritan, that we hear Jesus praising the faith of Gentiles such as the
widow of Zarephath and Naaman the Syrian (Lk.4:25-27), and that we hear the story of the one grateful leper
who is a Samaritan (Lk.17:11-19). According to the early Church historian Eusebius Luke was born at
Antioch in Syria.
In our day, it would be easy to assume that someone who was a doctor was rich, but scholars have argued
that Luke might have been born a slave. It was not uncommon for families to educate slaves in medicine so
that they would have a resident family physician. Not only do we have Paul's word, but Eusebius, Saint
Jerome, Saint Irenaeus and Caius, a second-century writer, all refer to Luke as a physician.
We have to go to Acts to follow the trail of Luke's Christian ministry. We know nothing about his conversion
but looking at the language of Acts we can see where he joined Saint Paul. The story of the Acts is written in
the third person, as an historian recording facts, up until the sixteenth chapter. In Acts 16:8-9 we hear of
Paul's company "So, passing by Mysia, they went down to Troas. During the night Paul had a vision: there
stood a man of Macedonia pleading with him and saying, 'Come over to Macedonia and help us.' " Then
suddenly in 16:10 "they" becomes "we": "When he had seen the vision, we immediately tried to cross over to
Macedonia, being convinced that God had called us to proclaim the good news to them."
Luke is the loyal comrade who stays with Paul when he is imprisoned in Rome about the year 61 and after
everyone else deserts Paul in his final imprisonment and sufferings, it is Luke who remains with Paul to the
end: "Only Luke is with me" (2 Timothy 4:11).
Luke's inspiration and information for his Gospel and Acts came from his close association with Paul and his
companions as he explains in his introduction to the Gospel.
Luke's unique perspective on Jesus can be seen in the six miracles and eighteen parables not found in the
other gospels. Luke's is the gospel of the poor and of social justice. He is the one who tells the story of
Lazarus and the Rich Man who ignored him. Luke is the one who uses "Blessed are the poor" instead of
"Blessed are the poor in spirit" in the beatitudes. Only in Luke's gospel do we hear Mary 's Magnificat where
she proclaims that God "has brought down the powerful from their thrones, and lifted up the lowly; he has
filled the hungry with good things, and sent the rich away empty" (Luke 1:52-53).
Luke also has a special connection with the women in Jesus' life, especially Mary. It is only in Luke's gospel
that we hear the story of the Annunciation, Mary's visit to Elizabeth including the Magnificat, the
Presentation, and the story of Jesus' disappearance in Jerusalem. It is Luke that we have to thank for the
Scriptural parts of the Hail Mary: "Hail Mary full of grace" spoken at the Annunciation and "Blessed are you
and blessed is the fruit of your womb Jesus" spoken by her cousin Elizabeth.
Forgiveness and God's mercy to sinners is also of first importance to Luke. Only in Luke do we hear the story of the Prodigal Son welcomed back by the overjoyed father. Only in Luke do we hear the story of the forgiven woman disrupting the feast by washing Jesus' feet with her tears. Throughout Luke's gospel, Jesus takes the side of the sinner who wants to return to God's mercy.
Reading Luke's gospel gives a good idea of his character as one who loved the poor, who wanted the door to God's kingdom opened to all, who respected women, and who saw hope in God's mercy for everyone.
The reports of Luke's life after Paul's death are conflicting. Some early writers claim he was martyred, others say he lived a long life. Some say he preached in Greece, others in Gaul. The earliest tradition we have says that he died at 84 Boeotia after settling in Greece to write his Gospel.
A tradition that Luke was a painter seems to have no basis in fact. Several images of Mary appeared in later centuries claiming him as a painter but these claims were proved false. Because of this tradition, however, he is considered a patron of painters of pictures and is often portrayed as painting pictures of Mary.
He is often shown with an ox or a calf because these are the symbols of sacrifice -- the sacrifice Jesus made for all the world.
Prayer to St. Luke
Most charming and saintly Physician, you were animated by the heavenly Spirit of love. In faithfully detailing the humanity of Jesus, you also showed his divinity and his genuine compassion for all human beings. Inspire our physicians with your professionalism and with the divine compassion for their patients. Enable them to cure the ills of both body and spirit that afflict so many in our day.